ပတ္၀န္းက်င္ရဲ႕ ရုိက္ခတ္မႈေၾကာင့္ ကိုယ္ဘာလဲ ဆိုတာ ေပ်ာက္ကြယ္မသြားဖို႔ တစ္ကယ္တမ္း ၾကိဳးစားမိရဲ႕လား.. တစ္ကယ္ေတာ့ လူဆိုတာနဲ႔ ကိုယ့္ကိုကုိယ္ ဘာလဲဆိုတာ သိဖို႔ထက္ ရွင္သန္မႈတစ္ခုကို ပိုဦးစားေပးတတ္ၾကတယ္..
We humans are on a journey toward societies that are more civilized than those we have now, and in which every single person will be treated fairly regardless of race, ethnicity, sex, gender, religion or age. Since the Stone Age we have come a long way, and it took tremendous amount of work to get where we are today. I believe that we will continue to evolve by changing our ways of thinking, traditions, beliefs, cultures and technology to reach a complete civilization, just as our ancestors went through many different stages of biological and cultural evolution to reach where we are today. While we are on our journey toward this future civilization, every single one of us struggles against domineering power for our rights, equality, beliefs and, ultimately, our existence, while striving to be authentic and free from the influences of the societies we live in, yet enjoying camaraderie and conforming to those societies. In this paper, I define "societies" as the world’s societies, which humans belong to, and "existence" as trying to survive to live to our life expectancy.
ဘယ္ေလာက္ပဲ တန္းတူ အခြင့္အေရးလိုခ်င္ေသာ္လည္း အေျခအေနေပၚမွာ မူတည္လို႔ အမ်ိဳးသမီးေတြဟာ self-identity ေပ်ာက္ေနဦးမလား.. ဒီစာပိုဒ္ေလး တပိုဒ္ထဲဖတ္ျပီး အိမ့္ခ်မ္းေျမ႕ကို feminist ဟု မျမင္ေစလိုပါရွင္..။
It was not long ago that American women received the right to vote and to serve on juries. Women had to demand legal equality with men to achieve equality in education, employment and government. In addition, some women such as Babette from DeLillo’s White Noise considered men to have a capacity for insane and violent jealousy, and homicidal rage. Society considers women less valuable than men, although we do not openly admit it. As Virginia Woolf stated, women are considered mentally, morally and physically inferior to men; and women have to serve as looking glasses to reflect the figure of man at twice its natural size. Like she said, women serve men by being mothers and homemakers so that men can go on rendering judgments, civilizing natives, making laws, writing books, dressing up and speechifying at banquets. In the meantime some women rely on their husbands’ larger, more powerful persona to build up and reinforce their own fragile sense of self-worth and self-identity, as Jack from White Noise relies on Hitler’s larger surface. In addition, women always have practiced soft relativism, in which they do not try to challenge anyone else’s, especially men’s, values, particularly when their husbands are richer and more powerful than they are.
ေလ႔လာေတြ႔ရွိခ်က္အရ ၈၅ရာခိုင္နႈန္းေသာ ေယာကၤ်ားမ်ားဟာ narcissist ေတြလိုဆိုပါတယ္။
Charles Taylor states that society is sliding toward a "culture of narcissism," in which the individual is important above all. He also states that soft relativism is somewhat rooted in individualism. According to his estimation, 85% of narcissists are males; and I believe that most women are mentally, psychologically and biologically programmed to be soft relativists, but not narcissists. I also believe that we should have the right to choose for ourselves our own pattern of life, instead of fulfilling others' needs all the time. I think we should be somewhat balanced, being soft relativists, individualists and narcissists for our own and society's sake; but we should always remind ourselves that a fine line separates them.
ဒီရုပ္ရွင္ေလးကေတာ့ တစ္ကယ္ ပညာေပးေလးပါပဲ။
By coincidence I happened to watch a Burmese movie tonight. The setting was Northern Shan State, which is one of Myanmar's less developed regions. One of the girls from the village became pregnant and did not know who her unborn baby's father was. None of the villagers, including the pregnant girl, had received any formal education or sex education. To make things worse, the region was suffering from a drought, and the villagers thought that her premarital pregnancy was causing it, so everybody started to blame her and rush to find her baby's father. Finally she was sent to a small town nearby that had a hospital, and found out that she was not pregnant, but had fibroids in her uterus. We can see that the girl had no right to speak on her own behalf to defend herself, and that the village's elders, all of whom were men, made all decisions on her behalf. This shows that the time and situation also determine our soft relativism or individualism. The girl could not hold onto her belief to seek her own fulfillment by taking her own life or aborting her baby, but had to conform to her society, especially because it was powerful. Like Don DeLillo points out, humans sometimes obey authority blindly, and are willing to abandon ourselves to a strong personality. On the other hand, we can see that humans continuously attempt to dominate certain people, to oppress and control them, as the elders from the village dominated and made decisions for the girl and her family.
တစ္ခါတစ္ရံ လူေတြဟာ ျခဳံလႊာေတြေနာက္မွာ ပုန္းကြယ္လို႔ မေကာင္းမႈေတြ လုပ္တတ္ၾကတယ္။ မိန္းမေတြေကာ ေယာကၤ်ားေတြေ၇ာေပါ႕။
We also see evidence of human frailty: humans use power, position and authority to cover up their moral and spiritual frailty; boost their ego and hide their evil inside themselves with power, position and authority; and use weapons to abuse the vulnerable. People in powerful positions do not have to be oppressive authorities with weapons, like German SS soldiers. As we all know, monks in all religions, including Catholic and Buddhist monks, lay leaders and even some parents, use their power and authority to sexually, emotionally and mentally abuse defenseless people, including youngsters. Being a woman, it is beyond my understanding how men can be so extremely deceitful, aggressive and cruel when it comes to fulfilling their sexual needs, and can commit these sexual crimes by using their position and their yellow, black or white robes as protection. We can see one man’s deceitful ways through the actions of the project manager responsible for the drug Dylar, Willie Mink, who traded Dylar for sex and who had an affair with Babette, who also traded sex for Dylar. We can also see aggressive behaviour in the character of the self-taught man from Sartre’s Nausea, who is educating himself by reading all of the local library's books in alphabetical order. He might argue that his timid caress of a young boy’s hand in the library is a way of showing his love for mankind; however, it is merely an example of human frailty.
တစ္ခါတုန္းက နိုင္ငံေတာ္အလံကို ထမီေဇာက္ထိုး၀တ္ခဲ႔တဲ႔ စစ္အစိုးရကို ရြံရွာမုန္းတီးလြန္းလွပါခ်ည္ရဲ႕ဆိုတဲ႔ ရဲရဲေတာက္ သူငယ္ခ်င္းမေတြဟာ အခုေတာ့ ဗိုလ္ကေတာ္ေတြျဖစ္သြားတာ… အဲဒါကို ဂုဏ္ယူေနၾကတာ.. အင္း နာဇီေခတ္က အတိုင္းပဲဆိုပါေတာ့ေနာ္။
Haffner’s Defying Hitler also gave me the impression that we all conform to the society that we live in for our existence, even that society is frail with weak morality and spirituality; yet may seem strengthened by technology and modernity. However, we can argue that one man's meat is indeed another man's poison, and that Hitler was doing the right thing for his people. Some might say that it is a "necessary evil" for man to fully realize what man is capable of doing. From my point of view, however, it is sad to find out that as Burmese society, German society tended to conform to the Nazis' evil, and that the country's people waited to act until things got really out of hand. Not only did they not try to oppose evil, the Social Democratic leadership betrayed their millions of faithful and blindly loyal followers, according to Haffner. He stated that Severing and Grzesinski betrayed their followers by “yielding to greater force”. Charles Taylor also highlighted this conformity as one of the components in The Malaise of Modernity, which suggests that we lose our freedom due to the predominance of large institutions. For example, a German soldier might want to preserve his own dignity and morality by following his inner voice, and might try to resist killing human beings; however, he will have to honour his country and the institution that he belongs to by carrying out the orders and joining in the killings. In Defying Hitler, Haffner states that camaraderie comforts and helps people who live under unbearable or inhuman conditions. He says that camaraderie helps to make the intolerable tolerable, and also helps people to cope with filth, calamity and death.
တစ္ေယာက္က ဒါဆုိရင္ အကုန္က လိုက္လုပ္တတ္ၾကတဲ႔သေဘာရွိတတ္တာေတြ၊ တစ္ခါတစ္ရံ သူမ်ားေနာက္လိုက္လြန္းတာဟာ၊ ေျပာသမွ်ယုံတာဟာ၊ တစြန္းတစေလးနဲ႔ ထင္ျမင္ခ်က္ ခ်ပစ္လိုက္တာဟာ ေျခာက္ကမ္းပါးထဲကို မ်က္စိစုံမွိတ္ ခုန္ခ်တာထက္ ဆိုးတတ္တယ္ဆိုတာ…
This camaraderie can be seen in the relationship between Babette and Jack in White Noise, by Don DeLillo. Jack suffers from necrophobia, the fear of death, after his exposure to the toxic chemical Nyodene D. Jack and Babette initially help each other to cope with this fear. However, all the advertisements from the stores for products that prevent illness and ageing and help people to stay young and healthy, and her elderly students fighting their ageing, might have pushed Babette toward this fear. Jack does not know that his wife is also suffering from necrophobia, or that she is taking Dyler, which is a psycho-pharmaceutical drug that controls necrophobia. Although Jack’s previous wives belong to the intelligence community and are secretive, Babette is a homey wife who shares everything with her husband until she, too, develops necrophobia. Their camaraderie in sharing the fear of death corrupts them, because I believe that Babette's infidelity, rooted in her uncontrollable fear of dying, is especially important because it signals the convergence of Jack’s fears of dying and plots. Also, as Heffner says, their camaraderie makes them unfit for normal, responsible, civilian life. Babette changes from an open, loving wife into a quiet, somber, cryptic figure because of this camaraderie. I think that if they could somehow accept their mortality, as Winnie does, it could enable them to fulfill their dreams while they are living. As Winnie said, I believe that a sense of belonging to a higher realm, whether it is true or not, could make us peaceful and help all of us to avoid necrophobia.
သူမ်ားေတြ ေသျခင္းတရားနဲ႔ ရင္ဆိုင္ရရင္ေတာ့ ကိုယ္နဲ႔ ဘာမွမဆိုင္သလိုေနတတ္တာ.. သူတစ္ပါးျမတ္နိုးတဲ႔ အရာတစ္ခုကို စြန္႔လႊတ္လိုက္ရလို႔ ၀မ္းနဲေနတာကို ကိုယ္လဲတစ္ခါမွ မပိုင္ဆိုင္ဖူးပဲ၊ ကိုယ္လဲ တစ္ခါမွ မခံစားရဖူးပဲ.. ဘာသာေရးခုံျမင္႔ေတြေပၚက ထိုင္လို႔ လူလူခ်င္း တရားခ်တတ္တာ..
To avoid necrophobia can also be seen as a selfish act of humans while we are striving for our existence. It is depressing to see that we value our own existence more than anything else, sometimes even more than the lives of our spouses and our children. It is sad to read that Jews had no choice other than just to watch their wives and children sent to the gas chambers. However, when it comes to the deaths of others, it may seem natural to all of us; they might even become just “numbers.” We see that many people have died. Thousands have died in Afghanistan, thousands have died in plane crashes, tens of thousands perished in the tsunami, and millions have been tortured and killed by genocide. However, it may seem to be a life transforming experience when our loved ones or we face death. DeLillo states that Hitler could not bear to be anywhere near Christmas decorations because his mother had died near a Christmas tree, yet he ordered the ultimate massacre to be carried out on millions of Jews and homosexuals. However, we are free to perceive Hitler as a hero in the sense that his idiocy and mass killings were the catalyst for shaping many great lives.
အမွန္တရားဆိုတာေတာင္မွ အခ်ိန္နဲ႔အမွ် ထာ၀ရေျပာင္းလဲေနတာ..
One might ask "How would you maintain your faith/belief when everything is falling around you?" and, "How you would try to find authenticity?"
I believe that soft relativism, self-fulfillment and self-centeredness can be practiced better in democratic societies where people have the right to choose for themselves their pattern of life, and where the legal system protects these rights. These practices, which are somewhat highly regarded in Western civilization, would not have worked in Hitler’s era, or in some socialist or communist countries. A person cannot stand up and proclaim, “I am I,” “I can do what I want because I am a free man” or, “This is my authenticity, that I am a homosexual” in font of hundreds of SS men, because that person would be gassed right away. It is obvious that the majority of us tend to choose "existence" over "freedom" when we have the choice, because most of us are afraid of death and we believe that freedom can be had only when we are living. As Sartre suggests, "Man first of all exists, encounters himself, surges up in the world - and defines himself afterwards". This is why some religions create heaven, life after death or reincarnation, to give people a sense of another existence beyond this one, in hopes that we can somehow continue to define ourselves there.
ေသျခင္းတရားကို မိမိကုိယ္တိုင္ ျမင္ဖူးပါရဲ႕နဲ႔ ကိုယ္ဘယ္လိုေသမလဲ မဖြင့္ဆိုတတ္တာ..
As Murray Jay Siskind from DeLillo’s White Noise claims, only a shallow person would claim not to fear death. However, I believe that someone suffering tremendously from mental or physical illness might wish to die, finally overcome the fear of death and eventually take his own life, like Virginia Woolf did. As she was suffering from mental illness and attempted to commit suicide, we could also see that she was afraid of death. Her first attempt to commit suicide did not succeed. It is possible that she made another unsuccessful attempt, for she returned from a walk soaking wet, saying that she had fallen. Jack Gladney suffers from necrophobia while Virginia Woolf is longing to die; but Gladney is not suffering from any illness, yet Woolf is suffering from mental illness. I also think we all have encountered an episode of déjà vu about our death, as Don DeLillo points out. He points out that these things are reminders of things that happened before in our minds as visions of the future, yet we didn’t know how to process the experience. It is very interesting when he points out that we have seen our own death, but haven’t known how to make the material surface. This interests me because I believe that I saw death many times before it really happened to my beloved ones. I wish I could interpret those supernatural signs so that I could somehow have prevented those deaths. In addition, when our family members fail to survive or cease to exist, we all tend to continue with our lives and free ourselves of guilt by justifying our loss with the notion that death is just a part of living, or that “life without death is somehow incomplete,” as Murray said. We do this because this is what all societies believe, and we are told that this is how it should be because we are the human symbols of conformity who are thriving for our existence.
ပတ္၀န္းက်င္ ရုိက္ခတ္မႈ၊ ထုံးတမ္းစဥ္လာ၊ အာဏာ၊ ဂုဏ္သိကၡာေတြကို လူေတြ မလြန္ဆန္နိုင္ၾကတာ
This conformity is one which humans cannot fight against. We are not free, although we have been fighting to be free for centuries. We live in a world of copies, and even movies are self references: they are movies about movies. Our ego weakens as we overly socialize in modern strength. We cannot stand against conformity to the modern world, which includes technology, peer pressure, power, authority, tradition and prestige. Freedom is perhaps the most important thing about being human, for Sartre. But freedom is frightening, so it is easy to run from it into the safety of roles and realities that are defined by society, or even by your own past. To be free is to be thrown into existence with no "human nature" as an essence to define you, and no definition of the reality into which you are thrown, either. To accept this freedom is to live "authentically," but most of us run from authenticity. This authenticity could take us to the unknown, and I believe that this is what we fear; therefore, we tend to conform to our fellow humans instead of finding our own authenticity. It is not surprising to know that Sartre, the writer of philosophical books, especially on existentialism, declined the Nobel prize for literature. He is known to be the second person to decline the Nobel prize, for fear that it would turn him into an institution.
It is not easy for a person to decide who he is even after knowing "himself" because, as in White Noise, the conformity and camaraderie shared among tourists give the Most Photographed Barn meaning and value. Taylor defines authenticity as an idea of freedom, and says that we need to design ourselves against the demands of external conformity. He thinks that the enemy of authenticity can be social conformity. However, Jack Gladney notices that it is hard to find our own authenticity under the persuasion of modern technology, because it is hard for all of us to be free from technology and popular culture, such as celebrities, soda bottles and cereal packing from the superstore. It is also easier said than done to choose concentration rather than conformity; it is even harder to use a critical approach to social reality, in which we never assume that things are what they seem. To raise questions, investigate and criticize, and to be authentic and free, take courage, time, chance and situation. I am sure that most of us want to be authentic and free, or to be an individual. However, we live in societies, and we have to somewhat conform to the rules of the society we live in for our own survival.
ဘာေတြပဲ ေျပာေနေျပာေန ေနာက္ဆုံးေတာ႔ စား၀တ္ေနေရးကို အရင္ဆုံးေျဖရွင္းေနၾကရသူေတြ ခမ်ာေတာ့ ငါဘာေကာင္ပါလိမ့္ ဆိုတာကို မစဥ္းစားနိုင္ၾကတာ....
In conclusion, I have learned tremendously by reading these quoted books. These books will not only take up space on my bookshelf, but will be reread occasionally. I believe that my interpretation and views of these books will change as time passes and as my age, knowledge and thinking change. I have learned that a majority of people at the bottom rows of Maslow’s hierarchy of physiological and safety needs have to fight for their existence before finding meaning in their lives, like others who are at the higher levels have done, because people who can fulfill their basic needs have chance to climb to higher levels and, eventually, to the top level, to find meaning in their and others' lives. In contrast, economically developed societies that are full of material goods other than just the basic needs of air, water and food can create individualists whose primary values are the autonomy of the people who search for pleasure, success and freedom; however, societies with a high mean number of births per family, whose members need to share physical space and to recognize the need for cooperation among all members, create camaraderie and conformity. I believe that as humans’ brains continue to grow, and as we proceed on our journey toward a more civilized society, we will always be trying to survive and be authentic.
DeLillo, D. (1998, December). White Noise. America: Penguin Books
Haffner, S. (2003, July). Defying Hitler: A Memoir. Picador
Levi, P. (1995, January). Survival in Auschwitz. Simon & Schuster Trade
Taylor, C. (1992). The Malaise of Modernity. House of Anansi Press
Woolf, V. (2001, November). Room of One’s Own. Broadview Press
Sartre, J. Paul (2007, April 23). Nausea. New Directions Books